Lisa Gitelman beleives that there are two different levels of looking at the media spectrum - The first being a technology that enables communication and the second being a set of collaborated "protocols" or social practices that have grown up around the initial technology. For example, delivery systems are just technologies that engage with the consumer, but these technologies will constantly change, creating layers in the vast sea of entertainment.

Bruce Sterling created what he calls the 'Dead Media Project' which is something that contradicts Henry Jenkins point of view. Bruce beleives that 'old media' is no longer used or needed and he is quoted saying 'Think of it this way. How long will it be before the much-touted World Wide Web interface is itself a dead medium? And what will become of all those billions of thoughts, words, images and expressions poured onto the Internet? Won't they vanish just like the vile lacquered smoke from a burning pile of junked Victrolas?'

Henry Jenkins talks heavily about the 'Black Box Fallacy' and how convergence effects older media. For example Jenkins talks about how 'Cinema did not kill Theatre or TV did not kill radio' but rather each medium was 'Forced to coexist with one another'. Henry also talks about how old media is not being displaced, but it's status has shifted by the introduction of new technologies. The black box fallacy argument is that all media content will eventually flow through one 'black box'. The reason why the term was coined is because we see more and more black boxes around our homes and work places (VCR, DVD and CD players), but these boxes over the years have started to converge and have multiple uses. Jenkins talks about how university students carry around 'Black Boxes' all the time - Laptops, Blackberrys - and they're not even aware of it.

'Part of what makes the black box concept a fallacy is that it reduces media change to technological change and strips aside the cultural levels we are considering here'


'Media convergence is more than simply a technological shift. Convergence alters the relationship between existing technologies, industries, markets genres and audience.' (Page 15 'Convergence Culture')

 Today, the iPhone is most commonly known as the ultimate black box. The iPhone has incredible capabilities, allowing us to access the internet in a swipe of a finger and be introduced to a wonderful amount of information.






Henry Jenkins beleives that there will not be a singular black box that controls the flow of media into our homes, he beleives that we are entering an era where media will be everywhere.

'Ready or not, we are already living within a convergence culture.' - Henry Jenkins - (Convergence Culture Pg 16)

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